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Fabric Filters – Industrial Uses and Advantages

Filtration is one of the most efficient and versatile methods of eliminating particulate mater from industrial gases. The process depends mainly on the use of filter fabrics (also referred to as tube filers, cartridge filters and sleeve filters, among many others) which are made of a felted or woven material shaped like a flat supported envelope or cylindrical bag.

Filter fabrics come in a unit that includes a gas inlet and outlet connections, a dust collection hopper, and a system that gets rid of the collected dust periodically. When gas passes through the fabric, dust can be trapped by way of different mechanisms, the most common of which are direct interception, diffusion and inertial impaction.

Fabric Filter Advantages

There are several advantages to the use of fabric filters, and below are the most crucial:

> Remarkably high collection efficiency (maximum of 99.9 plus %) with more particle size and inlet grain loading variations Under certain limits, fabric collectors can maintain static pressure and efficiency for more particle concentrations and sizes compared to other alternatives.

> Collection efficiency not influenced by the combustion fuel’s sulfur content unlike in ESPs

> Minimal sensitivity to particle size distribution

> No voltage requirements

> Collects flammable dust

> Removes smoke and fumes at sub-micron levels using special fibers or filter aids

> Available in an entire variety of inlet and outlet locations, sizes and configurations

Types of Fabric Materials

There are two types of materials used to make fabric filters: tissue and felt. As a two-dimensional network woven in many possible ways, tissue offers varying degrees of permeability and pliability. In addition, tissue properties are also dependent on the individual properties of the fibre or thread, the surface treatment and the coating. The dust cake that accumulates on the filter dictates the filter qualities of tissue.

With its three-dimensional fiber network, felt works better for filtration purposes. Compared to tissue, felt has greater mechanical strength, allowing it to work with high fabric loading, while a smaller filter installation is enough.

Aromatic polyamide and glass fibre are two examples of basic materials used to make filter fabrics in gas applications, each having their own unique pros and cons in relation to chemical resistance, temperature, mechanical strength and cost.

Applications

Fabric filters have several applications where limitations are easily overcome simply with the right choice of filter material. This method absorbs dioxins or gets rid of acid components when activated carbon or lime, respectively, is injected into the fume channel. Catalytic fabric filters can remove dioxins too.

Fabric filters are currently used in various industries, such as chemicals, metal processing, food, waste processing and cattle-feed.

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